# Surveying: 8 Branches Of Surveying

Surveying is the process of measuring the dimensions, location and elevation of objects.

Surveying is an important part of land development and construction projects that requires a surveyor to be accurate in their measurements.

1. Plane Table Surveying

Plane table surveying is a method of surveying in which the horizontal and vertical angles are measured by means of a plane table and theodolite, or some other surveying instrument.

The plane table consists of two legs, each consisting of an upright, flat base with an adjustable sliding mechanism that allows it to be moved along its length.

A straight edge may be placed on one end so that it rests against the edge at any angle required for measurement; then one leg will be placed at right angles on top of this edge, allowing you to read off both sides simultaneously.

Plane tables usually come with built-in levels which help ensure accuracy, but can also be purchased separately as well as having levels built into them themselves.

2. Compass Surveying

Compass surveying is the process of measuring horizontal and vertical angles by using a compass.

The compass can be used to determine the position of a point with respect to surrounding features, as well as measure distances and directions between two points.

3. Tachometric Surveying

Tachometric surveying is a method of surveying that uses a tachometer to measure the speed of a vehicle.

The tachometer is mounted on the vehicle and its revolutions are counted by using a hand wheel or an optical encoder.

A computer records these counts and displays them on screen as well as recording other information such as distance travelled, average speed and time taken for each measurement.

The main advantage of this technique over other methods such as odometry is that it gives precise information about how fast you’re going at each point along your route.

It can be useful if you need to know exactly where exactly you’ve been travelling during any given period.

4. Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is a process of making measurements from photographs which gives full graphic details.

It can be used to measure distance, height, area and other quantities.

Photogrammetric methods are widely used for surveying purposes in the fields of engineering and architecture.

Photogrammetry is a combination of photography and topography that employs photographic technologies such as laser scanners.

It also involves stereo cameras or GPS receivers to obtain accurate measurements from aerial photos taken by unmanned aerial vehicles or satellites with imaging spectrometry sensors attached on their sides.

5. Triangulation

Triangulation is the most common method of surveying in which it involves the use of a series of triangles to determine the position of a point, and can be used to measure any distance up to 150 miles (241 km).

For example, if you have an object that’s 200 feet tall in your backyard, you could triangulate its position by using three different points listed below.

The Points Includes:

The top point on one side (elevation)
The center point between two sides (longitudinal line)
A third point directly above where they intersect at right angles
Trilateration

Trilateration is a surveying method that uses the position of three known points to determine the location of a fourth point.

It is also called triangulation, which refers to three points used as support for an object or structure.

Trilateration is used to locate a point on the surface of Earth, such as in surveying or astronomy, where it can be useful for determining distance from one location to another.

It is also for locating objects at night when there are no visible stars nearby (e.g., during solar eclipses).

Trilateration requires an adequate number of reference points; typically four are needed with one being located at each corner of your square-shaped field (or rectangle).

These four points will then be connected together using lines drawn between them so that they form straight line segments which intersect at various angles depending on where you choose them relative to each other.

6. Contour surveying

Contour surveying is a method of making a map of the earth’s surface.

It involves drawing contour lines on maps to show the shape and elevation of land, as well as other features such as rivers and mountains.

Contour lines are used in all kinds of mapping work, from topographical surveys to hydrography (the study of water courses). They can also be used for civil engineering purposes or simply for fun!

7. Theodolite Surveying

Theodolite surveying is a method of measuring horizontal and vertical angles, and is often used in conjunction with the plane table method.

Theodolite surveying is also known as the surveyor’s compass.

The instruments themselves are identical to those used by the astronomer when conducting astronomical observations using telescopes or binoculars.

8. Total Station Surveying

Total stations are used to measure distances and heights of objects.

They are used for construction, engineering and mining purposes as well as land surveying.

They are very accurate instruments that can be used in all weather conditions.

The total station has a built-in telescope, which allows you to see the object from different angles.

The Main Components Of A Total Station Include:

A mount stabilizer that holds the instrument securely on your tripod or mast.
A rangefinder mounted below your telescope that shows distance measurements with an illuminated reticle pattern on its face.
An azimuthal adjustment dial located on top of your mount, which allows you to change angular orientation between north up or south down.